Constanta Old Town
The first historical references about Tomis, commercial landmark developed by the Greeks on a native Getae settlement, appeared in the 6th century B.C., the seafront of Tomis being an inevitable port of call for the Greek sailors. The Greek colonization led to a rise in the economic activity that materialized through the accumulation of wealth inside the citadel, culminating with an impressive urban development of the city.The expansion of the Roman Empire (centuries I-III A.D.) in the west area of the Black Sea led to an afterwards development of the citadel. At the beginning of the 6th century A.D., the citadel appeared mentioned under the name Constantiana, a name probably taken from a member of the Constantiana dynasty, either from the emperor Constantius II, famous for his intense activity in Scythia Minor, or from his daughter – Flavia Maxima Constantia. The city flourished under the mark of the Roman culture, the construction and architectural elements discovered indicating an important activity of the Roman Empire in this area. At the beginning of the 4th century, the town went through a series of destructions because of the barbarian’s invasion and only in the 500-550’s the emperors Anastasius and Justinian managed to reinstall peace in the Danube area and at sea. It was a time when rural and urban life revived and new constructions and edifices appeared in Tomis town. Since the 7th century B.C., after the invasion of the Slavonians in the Danube area, urban life declined, a rural settlement being mentioned on the ruins of the old citadel. Beginning with the 13th century B.C., once the Genoese traders entered the area, Tomis was reintegrated into the commercial maritime circuit. At the end of the Byzantine domination, following tradition, the Genoese traders created here a commercial exchange point. Oral tradition keeps in the collective memory the remembrance of a Genoese quay with granaries and a Genoese lighthouse, the latter being apparently restored by the English in 1860. In the 14th century, after the Ottoman conquest, Tomis received a new name - Küstenge, but urban life reduced itself, a few hundreds of families living here among the ruins of the old city that still held up. Its strategic position for cereal trade brought it back into attention at the middle of the 19th century. Padishah Medgid decided the construction of a port in Küstenge, mainly for the export of grains, wood and kettle from Dobrogea. The construction works were done by an English company - „ Danube and Black Sea Railway and Kustendge Harbour Company Ltd”. Under Turkish occupation, the little harbour of Kustenge was linked to Cernavoda (town situated 63 km away on the bank of the Danube) through the first railroad built by the Ottoman Empire.After the Independence War (1877 - 1878) and the reintegration of the region into the Romanian state, Constanța began a rising trend of development. At the beginning of the 20th century, the basis of a modern port city were set through the beginning of naval constructions and of the urban feature change. During the World Wars, the city underwent occupation, and, since the 1950’s, investments have been made in the modernizations of port constructions and of the Shipyard of Constanța – the biggest shipyard in Romania.From the economical point of view, Constanţa is nowadays the second city in the country after Bucharest, the capital, especially due to the activities and the facilities provided by the link to the sea (the port, the shipyard and tourism). The main activity in the county is connected with tourism. About 40% of the touristic accommodation capacity of Romania is to be found in the 14 seaside resorts (Gura Portiţei, Mamaia, Eforie, Techirghiol, Costineşti, Olimp, Neptun, Aurora, Jupiter, Venus, Saturn, Mangalia, 2 Mai, Vama Veche). At county level, besides services, other areas are developed as well, such as agriculture, industry, and constructions.The capital city of the county is Constanța with a population of over 300,000 inhabitants spread on a surface of 1,121 km2. Even if they have changed their number in time, in the city the Romanians cohabit with a multitude of ethnic groups: Turks, Tatars, Romani, Magyars, Armenians, Greeks, Germans, Bulgarians, and Ukrainians. Besides Orthodoxy, which represents more than 80% of the Christians, there are various other religious cults: Muslims, Roman Catholics, Greek Catholics, or Reformed Catholics. Constanta Old Town, illustrated travel guide, a circuit with 27 attractions.Reproduction, modification or use in other electronic or printed publications is prohibited without the prior permission of City Walk Guide.More photos and informations: www.merglamare.ro/en
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