Antalya is the fifth city in terms of population in Turkey, the capital of the province of the same name, largest international sea resort, located on the Turkish Riviera. The first inhabitants appeared in Antalya about 50 thousand years ago, the remains of them were preserved in the Carian cave, 27 kilometers to the north-west. The Hittites, who came from the Caucasus and Mesopotamia, ruled here from 2500 to 1400 years BC. In the IX century BC. Anatolia was flooded by the Greeks, who founded cities and centers of civilization here. The tribes that came from Trakia in the VIII-VII centuries BC, put an end to the civilization of the Hittites, including Pamphylia (Antalya) and Lykia. From the 7th century until 546 BC. Antalya was under the rule of the Lydians, who were then succeeded by the Persians. Alexander of Macedon put an end to their rule in 336th year, having subdued cities. After his death in 323 BC, a war broke out between his commanders, lasting until 188 BC, before the conquest of Antiochus III, King Pergamos of Attalos II. Attalos II and became the founder of Antalya, which at different times was mentioned in documents like Attales, Adalia and Adalla. According to legend, Attalos II, about 150 BC, ordered his associates to find a paradise on earth. The travelers went around the world and pointed to Attalu, the most beautiful place on the shore, where the city was built, named in his honor, Attalia. In 133 BC. The last king of Pergamum, his son, Attal III, bequeathed all the lands of the kingdom of the Roman Empire, but the period came when the region became a stronghold of pirates. In 88 BC, pirate cities united for protection from the Romans. And in 65 BC. Anatolia was attacked by Pompey, who installed over pirate cities, the power of Rome. Emperor Anthony gave Alanya to Queen Cleopatra. In 32 BC. the region again completely passed into the power of Rome. In 43 AD. formed the state that united Pamphylia, and Lycia. In the second and third centuries, Antalya was experiencing a period of greatest prosperity. The main city of the province of Pamphylia, "the land of all the tribes," became the city of Perge (Attalia), the place where the Roman emperor Adrian stopped to spend the winter months. In his honor were erected three-gate Adrian, made of white marble. On the territory of Antalya, Christianity began to develop in the first century: when Antalya was visited by Paul Tarsus and Barnabas, and as recorded in the Acts of the Holy Apostles: "Then they passed through Pisidia and came to Pamphylia. And when they uttered a word in Perga, they descended to Attalia, and from there went to Antioch. " After the division of the Roman Empire into eastern and western, the city remains in the eastern part, which became known as "Byzantium". The Byzantines surrounded Adalia, as they called the city, with a fortress wall, hoping to protect themselves from the Arabs. In the 12th century, Antalya served as a refuge for the crusaders, heading to the Holy Land. The Crusaders used this sea harbor on their way to the Middle East and called the city of Sathalia. Antalya was a large city, a naval port in the Byzantine Empire, and the most convenient harbor between the Aegean Sea and Cyprus. After the fall of Constantinople in 1204, the city and the surrounding region were conquered by the Seljuk Turks. In 1207, when the Seljuk Sultan Alaeddin Keykubad I conquered the city and gave it the modern name of Antalya, turning it into its winter residence. During their 100-year reign, the Seljukids paid much attention to maritime trade. The port was expanded, shipyards, roads, bridges were built. All this gave a new impetus to the development of the city. After the collapse of the state of the Seljukids, the administration of this region passed to the principality of Hamitogullara, Antalya became the capital of the Turkish Beylik Teke (1321-1423). In 1361, the Kingdom of Cyprus seized Antalya, but managed to survive in the city only 11 years. Later, the land of the principality of Hamitogullara was purchased by the Ottoman Empire during the reign of Murat I for 80,000 gold coins. Antalya became the city of the Ottoman Empire in 1391. In 1402 near Ankara the Mongolian troops under the command of Amir Timur defeated the Ottoman army. The area from Antalya to Alanya passed to the main rival of the Ottoman Empire - the principality of Karaman. Later, the Ottoman Empire repulsed these cities from the conquerors. The invasion of the Mongols in 1402 was a disaster for Antalya. Only in the 20's. XV century. here the Ottomans were able to establish themselves again. During the years of Turkish rule, the city sank to the level of a provincial settlement. The city was occupied by Italians as suzerains from the end of the First World War to the founding of the Turkish Republic in 1923. in 2014 the city received 12.5 million tourists and on the results of attendance, Antalya is on the fourth place after Paris, London, New York.
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